Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content

Density of Various Kinds of Wood and Plywood

Making Flexible Plywood using a Laser

There is a big demand of cutting wood and plywood on the market.

You may use Co2 laser, CNC mill or a diode laser for that.

The main question is to understand what type of wood or plywood can be easily cut with the laser and what laser cutting parameters should be used for it.


In the post, we will highlight the density of different wood and plywood types.

Density of Various Kinds of Wood and Plywood

Density of Various Kinds of Wood and Plywood
Measured in g. Measured in cm3. Measured in g/cm3. Measured using scales. Measured using a ruler. Find out the width, the length and the height. Multiply these together.


The density of wood and wood-based materials

To measure the weight of constructions the wood density should be taken according to the following table:


Types of woodDensity (Kg / M^3)
Softwood:Average to cut
pine, fir-tree, cedar, silver-fir500
Hardwood:Hard to cut
oak, birch, beech, ash, maple, horn-beech, acacia, elm700
Softwood:Very easy to cut
aspen, poplar, alder, linden500


Proceed with a fast and secure checkout. Free DHL shipment worldwide. Get your laser in 3-5 days.

Images of wood and plywood types

  1. The density of freshly cut coniferous and soft hardwood should be 850 kg/m³, hardwood – 1000 kg/m³.
  2. The density of glued wood should be taken as non-glued.
  3. The density of ordinary plywood should be equal to that of veneer wood, and Bakelized plywood should have a density of 1000 kg/m³.
  4. The density of homodromous veneer wood is 500-600 kg/m³ and depends on the veneer wood.


Examples of soft plywood (laser ply)


Live test of a 10 watt ENDURANCE PLUS PRO cutting abilities


A reference table of the density of various wood species

Wood density of more common species of wood
Species of woodWood density kg/³Easiness to cut
Balsa120-160Very easy
Siberian fir390-430Easy
Horse chestnut560Medium
European chestnut590Medium
Cypress600Above medium
Bird cherry tree610Above medium
Sapelly620Above medium
Hazel630Above medium
Walnut640Above medium
Cherry tree660Hard
European white elm660Hard
English field maple670Hard
African oak670Hard
Common pear690Hard
Afromosia700Very hard
West Indies mahogany700Very hard
Sycamore700Very hard
Buckthorn710Very hard
Beech720Very hard
Horn-beech750Very hard
Padouk750Very hard
Yew750Very hard
Ash750Very hard
Doussia800Very hard
Kempas800Very hard
Plumtree800Very hard
Lilacs800Very hard
Thorn800Very hard
Palisander800 – 1000Extremely hard
Pecan tree830Extremely hard
Jarra830Extremely hard
Merbau840Extremely hard
Courbaril840Extremely hard
Dipteracarpus Alatus850Extremely hard
Coula nut850Extremely hard
Muntenia850Extremely hard
Wenge900Extremely hard
Lapacho900Extremely hard
Olive tree900Extremely hard
Sandal900Extremely hard
Panga-panga950Extremely hard
Boxwood960Extremely hard
Sieva bean970Extremely hard
Sukupira1 000Extremely hard
Cumaru1 100Extremely hard
True ebony1 080Extremely hard
Black tree1 160Extremely hard
Quebracho1 210Extremely hard
Guaiacum or bakaut1 280Extremely hard




Main kinds of plywood (thickness and density)
Typeh (mmp (kg/m3
Standardfrom 3 (mm) to 30 (mm)650 (kg/m3)
Birchfrom 1 (mm) to 12 (mm)650 (kg/m3)
Bakelitefrom 5 (mm) to 40 (mm)1200 (kg/m3)
Decorativefrom 3 (mm) to 12 (mm)650 (kg/m3)


Wood density is the ration of the wood mass to its volume. It is measured in kg/m3 . The wood density depends on its moisture content. All physical and mechanical properties of wood are determined at a moisture content of 12%. There’s a close relationship between mechanical strength and density. Heavier wood is more durable as a rule. Density is determined by the mass of a wood substance per unit volume. At a moisture content of 12% wood, depending on its density, can be divided into three groups:

An Endurance air nozzle ver 2.0 for your diode laser.


Wood speciesDensity, g/cm3Density, kg/m3
Siberian fir0.39390
Fir tree0.45450
Bloomy poplar0.55550
Horse chestnut0.56560
Cherry tree0.58580
Sycamore maple0.65650
Cherry tree0.66660
Siberian fir tree0.66660
African oak0.67670
Horn tree0.80800
Pecan tree0.83830
Olive tree0.85-0.95850-950
Black sapote1.081080


In an absolutely dry condition, the density is by 20-40% less than the one indicated in the table.


The wood density has a great practical meaning. The denser wood is heavier and harder and is more durable and harder to process. The denser wood is hard to be treated with wood preservatives, but it is more durable and wear-resistant when used for floors, stairs, railings.


If you substitute one wood specie for another one the volume (and, accordingly, mass) of the adhesive in one cubic meter will change very little.


You can find out the general adhesive mass in a cubic meter by subtracting, for example, the specific weight of dry pine (500 kg/m3) from the specific weight of pine plywood.  It will make 50 kg.

To find out the mass of a cube of material from the veneer of larch, poplar or linden it is just necessary to add 50 kg to the weight of dry wood of the corresponding species.

Proceed with a fast and secure checkout. An Endurance “PRO” laser modules. Ultra reliable.


Our customer made and share

Holy Guacamole
I didn’t have any 3mm ply wood around. But i did have 5mm plywood and 9mm plywood.
So I thought, lets put it through the test. 9mm took about 20 passes and had to lower Z axis 5mm for last 10 passes. The 5mm did a clean cut no change to Z in <8 passes.
Videos to follow in post.

by Frank Estrada

Watch video footage


If wood or plywood has a density less than 500 Kg/m^3 or 0.5 g / Cm^3 then it can be quite easily cut with diode, Co2 and CNC mill

Materials with a medium-density like,  500-700 Kg/m^3 or 0.5-0.7 g / Cm^3 would require air assist, very good focusing and a laser-cut speed would be lower and amounts of repeats will be higher.

Materials with a high density like 700-1000 Kg/m^3 or 0.7-1 g / Cm^3 would be very hard to cut and probably will require a professional powerful milling system or Co2 laser power more than 100 watt for clean edges. Diode lasers might only cut very thin pieces like 1-2mm (1/10”)




Stay updated with Endurance newsletter.
I have read and agree with the Endurance privacy policy

    Individual offer for your goals


      Get a free consultation - leave your contacts