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Laser cutting guidance

Laser cutting guidanceLaser cutting guidance

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Endurance laser cutters and laser engravers can do a wide range of materials: wood, plywood, glass, stone, acrylic, felt, leather, cardboard, etc. Among this number there are some hazardous to either humans or the machine itself (Vinyl and PVC). That is why it is vital that any maker should have a list of those before choosing a material he has not worked with before.

Choosing between polycarbonate sheets (Lexan) and acrylic, pick up the latter, though they look, feel and smell like. Acrylic is one of the best materials to use with the laser. It cuts smoothly and cleanly, while polycarbonate easily catches fire producing soot that ruins the optics and messes up the machine. Its combustion products are very hazardous to the health of people nearby.

To be sure of your choice test the sample first. Acrylic is not very flexible, while polycarbonate is slightly bendable.


All about laser cutting an AI view


What kind of laser is needed to cut 3mm plywood

For cutting 3mm plywood, a CO2 laser with a power of 40-60 watts is suitable.


What kind of laser is needed to cut 6mm plywood

For cutting 6mm plywood, a CO2 laser with a power of 60-80 watts is typically suitable. The exact laser power required depends on the plywood type, desired cutting speed, accuracy, and quality of cutting.


What kind of laser is needed to cut wood

For cutting wood, a CO2 laser is a common choice due to its versatility and ability to handle a wide range of materials. Anyway, you have to consider the thickness and type of the wood being cut, as well as the desired cutting speed, accuracy, and quality of cutting. Generally, a CO2 laser with a power range of 40-100 watts or more is suitable for cutting wood.


Which laser is suitable to cut leather, fabric, felt

For cutting leather, fabric, and felt, a fiber laser is a common choice as it offers precise and accurate cutting with minimal heat-affected zone and edge degradation. The exact power required for cutting these materials depends on the thickness, texture, and type of the material, as well as on the desired cutting speed, accuracy, and quality of cutting. A fiber laser with a power range of 20-100 watts is suitable for cutting thin leather, fabric, and felt. For thicker materials, a higher laser power is required. Additionally, CO2 lasers can also be used to cut some types of fabrics and thin leather, but the  quality of the cut edges may leave much to be desired.


What kind of laser is needed to cut 1 mm steel

For cutting 1mm steel, a fiber laser is a good choice due to its high cutting speed, accuracy, and ability to produce clean cuts with minimal heat-affected zone.  Generally, a fiber laser with a power range of 500-3000 watts or more is well-suited for cutting 1mm steel.


What kind of laser is needed to cut 5 mm steel

To cut 5mm steel, a fiber laser with a higher power output is required compared to the laser power necessary to cut 1mm steel. A fiber laser with a power range of 2000-6000 watts or more will be good for cutting 5mm steel. It is also possible to use a CO2 laser for cutting thicker steel, but fiber lasers tend to provide better results for steel cutting applications.


What kind of laser can cut transparent acrylic

For cutting transparent acrylic, a CO2 laser is a common choice due to its ability to produce clean cuts with minimal heat-affected zone and minimal edge degradation. A CO2 laser with a power range of 40-100 watts or more is a good choice for cutting transparent acrylic. It is important to bear in mind that laser processing can cause discoloration and hazing of the acrylic edges. So, it is recommended to use lenses with high light transmission and keep the focus position as close to the surface of the material as possible to minimize these effects.


What kind of laser can cut colored acrylic and plastic

For cutting colored acrylic and plastic, a CO2 laser with a power range of 40-100 watts is a common choice as it is able to produce clean cuts with minimal heat-affected zone and minimal edge degradation. It is important to remember that the color and type of the material can affect the laser cutting process and the desired results.


What kind of laser can cut glass

For cutting glass, a high-power CO2 laser or a specialized ultraviolet (UV) laser can be used. CO2 lasers with a power range of 100-200 watts or more can be used to cut through glass, while UV lasers with a wavelength of 355 nm or frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers with a wavelength of 532 nm can be used to produce clean cuts with minimal thermal damage to the edges of the glass. Cutting glass with a laser can be challenging due to the brittle and reflective nature of the material. To prevent breakage and protect the laser equipment, specialists recommend to take appropriate precautions, such as using a specialized cutting table, a protective cover, or a water cooling system. 


What kind of laser can cut PCB boards

For cutting printed circuit boards (PCBs), a CO2 laser with a power range of 40-60 watts is a suitable choice. The laser can be used to cut the PCBs into smaller pieces, separate components, or create precise and accurate openings for components or through-holes.  When cutting PCBs with a laser, it is important to minimize the thermal damage to the components and exposure to harmful products of combustion, appropriate precautions should be taken, such as using a specialized cutting table, a protective cover or a fume extractor.


What laser can cut aluminum, copper, bronze

To cut aluminum, copper, and bronze, a fiber laser with a power range of 1000-3000 watts or more is well-suitable due to its high cutting speed, accuracy, and ability to produce clean cuts with minimal heat-affected zone. CO2 lasers can be used as well to cut these materials, but fiber lasers provide better results due to their higher power and ability to produce cleaner cuts. For better results, it is important to adjust the cutting parameters individually for every type of the material, taking into account its thicknesses as well.


Do I need to use airflow for laser cutting?

The use of airflow during laser cutting is optional but beneficial for several reasons:

  1. Cooling: Airflow helps keep cool the processed material and the laser lens, which will improve the quality and accuracy of the cuts.
  2. Fume extraction: Fumes and dust produced during laser processing can be harmful to human health and the laser equipment. Airflow helps extract the fumes and dust away from the cutting area.
  3. Improved accuracy: Airflow helps stabilize the material being cut and reduce any movement or warping, thus improving the accuracy of the cuts.


What lenses are used for laser cutting?

Lenses play a crucial role in laser cutting as they focus the laser beam onto the material being cut. The choice of lenses for laser cutting depends on the laser source, the desired cutting quality, and the type of the material being cut.

The most common types of lenses used for laser cutting include:

  1. F-Theta lenses: These lenses are designed for CO2 lasers and are commonly used for cutting and engraving flat materials, such as wood, acrylic, and fabric.
  2. RF-excited metal lenses: These lenses are used with RF-excited CO2 lasers and are optimized for cutting thicker materials, including metal.
  3. Fiber laser focusing lenses: These lenses are commonly used with fiber lasers for cutting metal and other dense materials.

It is important to use the appropriate lens for the laser source and material being cut to achieve the desired results and prevent damage to the lens or laser source.


How much does a universal laser cutting machine cost

The cost of a universal laser cutting machine can vary greatly depending on its type, size, features, and brand.

For a basic desktop CO2 laser cutting machine, prices can range from $5,000 to $20,000.

For larger and more advanced machines, prices can easily exceed $100,000 or more.

Industrial-grade fiber laser cutting machines can also cost several hundred thousand dollars, depending on the laser power and features.

To summarize, the cost of a universal laser cutting machine can vary greatly depending on the specific requirements, but it can range anywhere from several thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars or more. It is important to consider the specific needs and budget when choosing a laser cutter to ensure that it meets the desired cutting quality, speed, and accuracy requirements.

–written by ChatGPT


Fiber emitter Raycus 30W + Endurance DIY galvo machine

MaterialSpeed ​​mm/sPower, %Loops
Laser engraving
Acrylic 25 mm Engraved inside8001003
Laser cutting
Titanium 0.15 mm2010010
Anodized aluminum 0.2mm201005
Copper 0.2 mm2010010
Stainless steel 0.1400

pouring 0.05 mm 8000



20 cycles


Getting color engraving (YETI colors) on titanium plate

Laser cutting guidance

Color Speed ​​mm/sPower, %Loops


Endurance 4 watt DPSSL installed on a DIY galvo machine

MaterialSpeed ​​mm/sPower, %Loops
black PLA plastic1800701
Removing paint from wood10001002


Endurance 10 watt DPSSL installed on a DIY galvo machine

MaterialSpeed, mm/sPower, %Loops
Black PLA plastic1500501
Engraving in 4 mm acrylic500






black glass600403
Engraving on jewelry500301 -2
Removing toner from paper5001004+



An Endurance Co2 40W frame

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %Additionally
Plywood 3mm350100+ airflow
Acrylic 3mm :











Acrylic 6 mm













Paint removal






Frequency 0,1mm

Acrylic 4mm, surface-painted black500100, on relay downexhaust, airflow, painted layer up, focus 5mm
Acrylic 6mm70100, on relay position downFocus 5mm to surface

Airflow to minimum

Engraving rubber for stamps



Endurance 10W water cooled laser

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %Additionally
Plywood 3mm40095%3 passes + airflow
Black acrylic30095%4 passes
Purple acrylic30095%4 passes

Endurance 10 watt PLUS PRO laser

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %Additionally
Plywood 3mm30099%3 passes + airflow
Stainless steel engraved1099%
Wood 10mm30099%Long focus lens only. First 30 passes, then lower by 5mm and another 30 passes.


Endurance 15 watt DIY DUOS

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %Additionally
Plywood 3mm20095%2 passes + airflow


Endurance 10 watt SE laser module

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %Additionally
Plywood 3mm20095%2 passes + airflow


Endurance laser beam combiner (5.5 watt SainSmart + 5.5 watt Ortur)

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %
Laser cutting
Plywood 3mm density 0.7 g/cm3280 x 3 repetitions100%
Leather 2mm600100%
Craft paper150060%
Laser engraving
Plywood 3mm density 0.7 g/сm3150036%
Leather 2mm150015%
Stainless steel180100%


Ortur laser master 2 (5.5 watt laser)

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %
Plywood 3mm density 0.7 g/cm3 cutting100 x 4 repetitions100
Leather 2mm cutting220100
Stainless steel engraving50100


Endurance DPSS 2 laser beams: 1064 +532 nm

MaterialSpeed, mm/minPower, %
Stainless steel (unique marking)1010%
Engraving on titanium color (out of focus)from 500 to 1500from 10% to 100%

Table for determining the parameters of laser engraving.


Cardboard cutting


We recommend cutting these materials only if you have an industrial air ventilation system!


Cutting and engraving can be done only at the user’s risk.

WARNING: Because many plastics are dangerous to cut, it is important to know what kind you are planning to use.

PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride)/vinyl/

pleather/artificial leather

Emits chlorine gasThe released chlorine gas will ruin the optics, the motion control system, causes the metal of the machine to corrode.
Thick ( >1mm ) Polycarbonate/


Cuts very poorly, discolors, inflames Polycarbonate absorbs infrared radiation! This is the frequency of light the laser cutter uses to cut materials, so it is very ineffective at cutting polycarbonate.
ABSMelts / CyanideABS does not cut well in a laser cutter. It tends to melt rather than vaporize, and has a higher chance of catching on fire and leaving behind melted gooey deposits on the vector cutting grid. It also does not engrave well (again, tends to melt). Cutting ABS plastic emits hydrogen cyanide, which is unsafe at any concentration.
HDPE/milk bottle plasticCatches fire and meltsIt melts. It gets gooey. It catches fire.
PolyStyrene FoamCatches fireIt catches fire quickly, burns rapidly, it melts, and only thin pieces cut. This is the #1 material that causes laser fires!!!
PolyPropylene FoamCatches fireLike PolyStyrene, it melts, catches fire, and the melted drops continue to burn and turn into rock-hard drips and pebbles.
Epoxyburn / smokeEpoxy is an aliphatic resin, strongly cross-linked carbon chains. A CO2 laser can’t cut it, and the resulting burned mess creates toxic fumes ( like cyanide! ). Items coated in Epoxy, or cast Epoxy resins must not be used in the laser cutter. ( see Fiberglass )
FiberglassEmits fumesIt’s a mix of two materials that cant’ be cut. Glass (etch, no cut) and epoxy resin (fumes)
Coated Carbon FiberEmits noxious fumesA mix of two materials. Thin carbon fiber mat can be cut, with some fraying – but not when coated.
Any foodstuff ( such as meat, seaweed ‘nori’ sheets, cookie dough, bread, tortillas… )The laser is not designed to cut food, and people cut things that create poisonous/noxious substances such as wood smoke and acrylic smoke.If you want to cut foodstuffs, consider sponsoring a food-only laser cutter for the space that is kept as clean as a commercial kitchen would require.
Material with Sticky Glue BackingCoats lens, cracks lensThere are many normally laserable items such as thin wood laminates that you can purchase that become un-cuttable when the manufacturer adds a layer of peel-off glue on the bottom to attach them to surfaces. Examples include cork tiles, thin wood laminate, acrylic tiles, and paper stickers. Never cut these materials in the laser cutter if they have this backing. The glue will vaporize forming a coating on the lens that will coat it, cloud it, heat it, and then potentially crack the lens. The glue residue is worse than resin, and can’t be removed without risking damage to the lens … requiring a lens replacement.

Cutting plastics with Endurance lasers (PVC, Acrylic)


Safe & Unsafe Materials for the Laser Cutter

Safe Materials

The laser can cut or etch. The materials that the laser can cut materials like wood, paper, cork, and some kinds of plastics. Etching can be done on almost anything, wood, cardboard, aluminum, stainless steel, plastic, marble, stone, tile, and glass.



MaterialMax thicknessNotesWARNINGS!
Many woods1/4″Avoid oily/resinous woodsBe very careful about cutting oily woods, or very resinous woods as they also may catch fire.
Plywood/Composite woods1/4″These contain glue, and may not laser cut as well as solid wood.
MDF/Engineered woods1/4″These are okay to use but may experience a higher amount of charring when cut.
Paper, card stockthinCuts very well on the laser cutter, and also very quickly.
Cardboard, cartonthickerCuts well but may catch fire.Watch for fire.
Cork1/8″Thin cork can be cut, but the quality of the cut depends on the thickness and quality of the cork. Engineered cork has a lot of glue in it, and may not cut as well.Avoid cutting thicker cork (5mm). Engraves well, cuts poorly.
Acrylic/Lucite/Plexiglas/PMMA1/2″Cuts extremely well leaving a beautifully polished edge.
Thin Polycarbonate Sheeting (<1mm)<1mmVery thin polycarbonate can be cut, but tends to discolor badly. Extremely thin sheets (0.5mm and less) may cut with yellowed/discolored edges. Polycarbonate absorbs IR strongly, and is a poor material to use in the laser cutter.Watch for smoking/burning
Delrin (POM)thinDelrin comes in a number of shore strengths (hardness) and the harder Delrin tends to work better. Great for gears!
Kapton tape (Polyimide)1/16″Works well, in thin sheets and strips like tape.
Mylar1/16″Works well if it’s thin. Thick mylar has a tendency to warp, bubble, and curlGold coated mylar will not work.
Solid Styrene1/16″Smokes a lot when cut, but can be cut.Keep it thin.
Depron foam1/4″Used a lot for hobby, RC aircraft, architectural models, and toys. 1/4″ cuts nicely, with a smooth edge.Must be constantly monitored.
Gator foamFoam core gets burned and eaten away compared to the top and bottom hard paper shell.Not a fantastic thing to cut, but it can be cut if watched.
Cloth/felt/hemp/cottonThey all cut well. Our lasers can be used in lace-making.Not plastic coated or impregnated cloth!
Leather/Suede1/8″Leather is very hard to cut, but can be if it’s thinner than a belt (call it 1/8″). Our “Advanced” laser training class covers this.Real leather only! Not ‘pleather’ or other imitations .. they are made of PVC.
Magnetic SheetCuts beautifully
NON-CHLORINE-containing rubberFine for cutting.Beware chlorine-containing rubber!
Teflon (PTFE)thinCuts OK in thin sheets. See ; the issues listed in

should not matter because our lasers are fully vented and exhausted.

Carbon fiber mats/weave
that has not had epoxy applied
Can be cut, very slowly.You must not cut carbon fiber that has been coated!!
Coroplast (‘corrugated plastic’)1/4″Difficult because of the vertical strips. Three passes at 80% power, 7% speed, and it will be slightly connected still at the bottom from the vertical strips.


All the above “cuttable” materials can be etched, in some cases very deeply.

In addition, you can etch:

GlassGreen seems to work best…looks sandblasted.Flat glass should be engraved in our cutter as we have no rotary device. Round or cylindrical objects like bottles or glasses will have distortion.
Ceramic tile
Anodized aluminumVaporizes the anodization away.
Painted/coated metalsVaporizes the paint away.
Stone, Marble, Granite, Soapstone, Onyx.Gets a white “textured” look when etched.100% power, 50% speed or less works well for etching.

Laser Marking

Cermark is the brand name of a marking compound containing molybdenum that costs ~$50-100 for a 12oz spray can, which can be sprayed onto stainless steel, brass, aluminum, copper, nickel, glass or light-colored stone/tile before being etched to leave behind a permanent dark black mark. Some people have had some luck using dry moly lube spray to the same effect. It is thought that the molybdenum sulfate in the dry lube breaks down to molybdenum which either oxidizes or reacts with the underlying surface to create the mark.

was made based on data



Cutting 15 mm dark foam (Eva-foam)



Read full laser cutting guidance (PDF)
Full guidance of laser cutting / engraving parameters (PDF)

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Florian Kelsh from Fizzle Grafix

Plywood laser cutting and making a nice piece of art using 10 watt Endurance laser


Learn more about wood and plywood cutting >>>

All you need to know about wood and plywood laser cutting — parameters, settings, focusing, air assist


Plywood laser cutting with G7 & G8 laser lens


Laser cutting and laser engraving for home and for business
Advantages of Endurance lasers

High-quality standard

Multi-level testing system.
Industrial components.

Ultra reliable

The guaranteed duration of the continuous operation ~48-72 hours.

True continuous power output

Our products have the rated power output as advertised – unlike Chinese analogues.

TTL mode

Can be turned on and off with 3.5-24V.
Variable power output.

Plug and play

Universal and compatible mount.
Compatible with most 3D printers and CNC machines.

Friendly return policy

Do not like the laser?
Simply return within 30 days and get a full refund.

Laser attachments and laser engraving (marking) machines
Why do our customers buy lasers and engraving machines from Endurance?

Real-time advice

We assist and give advice by Phone / Email / Facebook messenger / Telegram / Whatsapp / Viber.

Professional support

We help to install and tune the laser. We offer qualified after-sales support.

Everything you need

We ship everything you need in one parcel to get started.

Immediate delivery

We ship all units within 4-24 hours. DHL express delivery allows you to get the package in 3-5 days.

Lifetime warranty

All our lasers are tested and could work up to 10000 hours.

Upgrade option

Do you have an old model? Upgrade your unit with more powerful one.


Laser cutting guidance

Video available upon request. Just email to [email protected] or text: 12393020053 [whatsapp, viber, telegram, wechat]

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