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Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials

There is a problem that some lasers go not cut or engrave on different materials, for example, metals, glass, plexiglass.

An explanation is very simple – different materials absorb and reflect different wavelength, therefore, more power is absorbed – easy cutting or engraving will be. More power is being reflected – less power will achieve the surface.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials
(c) www.universetoday.com

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials

Under this plot you may see that Al, Ag, Au, Cu reflect almost all wavelength after 1000 nm.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials
(c) www.researchgate.net
Based on Researchgate data you may see that aluminum absorbs wavelength shorter than 100 nm and almost does not of other wavelengths, has a small spike somewhere 850-900 nm.
For example, gold and silver are kind of sensitive to the wavelength 300-500 nm.
As you may see steel and pure iron are sensitive to wavelength more than 1050 nm. that is why most fiber lasers for metal cutting use 1064 / 1080 nm wavelength.

This Data is For a Copper Standard Solution And Bears No Resemblance To Elemental Copper Metal
This Plot Shows Substantial Copper Absorption (About 43 %) at 450 nm

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials
(c) www.keyence.com
According to Keyence research, you may see that all metals except the aluminum have downslope after 450 nm.

Why it is impossible to engrave or cut with lasers of wavelength more than 300 nm
Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials
(c) www.chem.ucla.edu
As you can see on this chart almost all types of glass are transmitting all wavelength longer than 300 nm

Glass cutting is possible with the laser with a wavelength of more than 4.4uM (4400 nm)
Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials
(c) www.crystran.co.uk
The regular glass absorbs wavelength longer than 4000 nm (4 uM) which is far-infrared, that is why laser cutting of glass and acrylic can be don on Co2 lasers with a wavelength of 10.6 uM.

 

Acrylic transition coefficient

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials

(c) thorlabs.de

 

Window glass transition coefficient

 

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials

 

(c) www.researchgate.net

 

Reflection rate in percentage (%) from a polished surface.

Types of wavelength
The wavelength, А (10A=1 nm)
Aluminum
Copper
Steel (1% С)
Silver
Nikel
Chrome
Zink
Silicium
Ultraviolet
1880 22 76 33 17 64
2000 27 76 36 22 73
2510 80 26 38 34 38 39 75
3050 25 44 9 44 37 48 73
3570 84 27 50 75 49 41 51 60
Visible light
5000 88 44 56 91 61 55 55 34
6000 89 72 57 93 65 58 32
7000 87 83 58 95 69 56 61
Infrared
8000 85 89 61 97 70 62
10000 93 90 63 97 72 57 69
50000 94 98 90 99 94 81 97
100000 97 98 94 99 93

 

reflection coefficient for different metals

 

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