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Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Transmission reflection refraction

There is a problem that some lasers do not cut or engrave on different materials, for example, metals, glass, plexiglass.

An explanation is very simple – different materials absorb and reflect different wavelengths, therefore, more power is absorbed – easy cutting or engraving will be. More power is being reflected – less power will achieve the surface.

about absorption reflection transmission principles
about absorption reflection transmission principles

(c) www.universetoday.com

Reflectance for Aluminum Silver Gold and Copper
Reflectance for Aluminum Silver Gold and Copper

Under this plot you may see that Al, Ag, Au, Cu reflect almost all wavelengths after 1000 nm.

Absorption for Silver, Aluminum, Gold, Copper, Steel, Iron vs wavelength (different types of lasers)
Absorption for Silver, Aluminum, Gold, Copper, Steel, Iron vs wavelength (different types of lasers)

(c) www.researchgate.net
Based on Researchgate data you may see that aluminum absorbs wavelength shorter than 100 nm and almost does not of other wavelengths, has a small spike somewhere 850-900 nm.
For example, gold and silver are kind of sensitive to the wavelength 300-500 nm.
As you may see steel and pure iron are sensitive to wavelengths more than 1050 nm. which is why most fiber lasers for metal cutting use 1064 / 1080 nm wavelength.

This Data is For a Copper Standard Solution And Bears No Resemblance To Elemental Copper Metal
This Plot Shows Substantial Copper Absorption (About 43 %) at 450 nm

Absorption coefficient depending on wavelength for Copper Gold, Nickel, Iron and Aluminum
Absorption coefficient depending on wavelength for Copper Gold, Nickel, Iron and Aluminum

(c) www.keyence.com
According to Keyence’s research, you may see that all metals except aluminum have downslope after 450 nm.

 

Why it is impossible to engrave or cut with lasers of wavelength more than 300 nm

(c) www.chem.ucla.edu
As you can see on this chart almost all types of glass are transmitting all wavelength longer than 300 nm

Glass cutting is possible with the laser with a wavelength of more than 4.4uM (4400 nm)
glass absorption diagrammer
(c) www.crystran.co.uk
The regular glass absorbs wavelength longer than 4000 nm (4 uM) which is far-infrared, that is why laser cutting of glass and acrylic can be don on Co2 lasers with a wavelength of 10.6 uM.

 

Acrylic transition coefficient

Acrylic transition coefficient depending on different wavelengths
Acrylic transition coefficient depending on different wavelengths

(c) thorlabs.de

 

Window glass transition coefficient

 

Window glass transition coefficient
Window glass transition coefficient

 

(c) www.researchgate.net

 

Different types of glass transmission rate

 

Reflection rate in percentage (%) from a polished surface.

Types of wavelength
The wavelength, А (10A=1 nm)
Aluminum
Copper
Steel (1% С)
Silver
Nikel
Chrome
Zink
Silicium
Ultraviolet
18802276331764
20002776362273
251080263834383975
30502544944374873
35708427507549415160
Visible light
50008844569161555534
600089725793655832
700087835895695661
Infrared
8000858961977062
1000093906397725769
5000094989099948197
1000009798949993

 

reflection coefficient for different metals
reflection coefficient for different metals

 

PVC absorption coefficient

PVC absorption coefficient
PVC absorption coefficient

 

Transmittance for: Polystyrene, cyclic olefin polymer, polycarbonate, PMMA, UV acrylic

Transmittance for: Polystyrene, cyclic olefin polymer, polycarbonate, PMMA, UV acrylic
Transmittance for: Polystyrene, cyclic olefin polymer, polycarbonate, PMMA, UV acrylic

 

PET plastics transmittance ratio

PET plastics transmittance ratio
PET plastics transmittance ratio

 

PLA plastics absorption coefficient

PLA plastics absorption coefficient
PLA plastics absorption coefficient

 

 

Wood reflectance and absorption coefficients

Wood reflectance and absorption coefficients
Wood reflectance and absorption coefficients

 

 

 

RADIATION CENTERS FOR PAINTING IN GLASSES

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Induced absorption spectrum (1, solid line)

a nominally pure glass of composition Na2O * 3SiO2 and its decomposition into

constituent components – absorption bands of H3 centers

+ (2), H2+(3), H4+(4), E4- (5) and the Fe3 + antireflection band (6). Dots in the spectrum 1

the sum of contours 2 – 6 is presented.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Induced absorption spectrum (1, solid line) of glass

composition Na2O * 3SiO2 with Eu3 + additives

and its decomposition into components

components – absorption bands of H3 centers+ (2), H2+ (3), (Eu3 +)- (4 and 6),H4+ (5). The points in spectrum 1 represent the sum of contours 2 – 6.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Spectra of the initial (1) and induced by UV irradiation

absorption (2) glass Na2O * 3SiO2 with additives Tb3 +and its decomposition into

Gaussian components – absorption bands of E2 centers – (3), (Tb3 +)+(4), E4-

(5) and the clearing band of Tb3 + ions (6) caused by their

photorecharge.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Absorption spectra of glasses with 0.05 mol. % СеО2 and

iron content at the level of 0.005 mol. Fe2O3 (1) or at the level

trace impurities (2).

 

Table of characteristic frequencies in infrared spectroscopy

 

Comparison of a different types of lasers and different wavelength

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