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Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

There is a problem that some lasers do not cut or engrave on different materials, for example, metals, glass, plexiglass.

An explanation is very simple – different materials absorb and reflect different wavelengths, therefore, more power is absorbed – easy cutting or engraving will be. More power is being reflected – less power will achieve the surface.

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.
(c) www.universetoday.com

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

Under this plot you may see that Al, Ag, Au, Cu reflect almost all wavelengths after 1000 nm.

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Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.
(c) www.researchgate.net
Based on Researchgate data you may see that aluminum absorbs wavelength shorter than 100 nm and almost does not of other wavelengths, has a small spike somewhere 850-900 nm.
For example, gold and silver are kind of sensitive to the wavelength 300-500 nm.
As you may see steel and pure iron are sensitive to wavelengths more than 1050 nm. which is why most fiber lasers for metal cutting use 1064 / 1080 nm wavelength.

This Data is For a Copper Standard Solution And Bears No Resemblance To Elemental Copper Metal
This Plot Shows Substantial Copper Absorption (About 43 %) at 450 nm

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.
(c) www.keyence.com
According to Keyence’s research, you may see that all metals except aluminum have downslope after 450 nm.

Why it is impossible to engrave or cut with lasers of wavelength more than 300 nm
Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.
(c) www.chem.ucla.edu
As you can see on this chart almost all types of glass are transmitting all wavelength longer than 300 nm

Glass cutting is possible with the laser with a wavelength of more than 4.4uM (4400 nm)
Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.
(c) www.crystran.co.uk
The regular glass absorbs wavelength longer than 4000 nm (4 uM) which is far-infrared, that is why laser cutting of glass and acrylic can be don on Co2 lasers with a wavelength of 10.6 uM.

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Acrylic transition coefficient

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

(c) thorlabs.de

 

Window glass transition coefficient

 

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

(c) www.researchgate.net

 

Different types of glass transmission rate

 

Reflection rate in percentage (%) from a polished surface.

Types of wavelength
The wavelength, А (10A=1 nm)
Aluminum
Copper
Steel (1% С)
Silver
Nikel
Chrome
Zink
Silicium
Ultraviolet
18802276331764
20002776362273
251080263834383975
30502544944374873
35708427507549415160
Visible light
50008844569161555534
600089725793655832
700087835895695661
Infrared
8000858961977062
1000093906397725769
5000094989099948197
1000009798949993

 

reflection coefficient for different metals

 

PVC absorption coefficient

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

Transmittance for: Polystyrene, cyclic olefin polymer, polycarbonate, PMMA, UV acrylic

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

PET plastics transmittance ration

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

PLA plastics absorption coefficient

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

 

Wood reflectance and absorption coefficients

Absorption wavelength spectrum for different materials: glass, metal and others.

 

 

Comparison of a different types of lasers and different wavelength

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